Volume 76, Issue 1 (2017), pp. 113–126
This study analyzes the genesis of distance education functions within the contextual conversion of technological and educational paradigms. The genesis is based on the technological and educational environment consistency factors, therefore, it is analyzed as an integral technology and education symbiosis phenomenon. The study distinguishes between historical and educational distance education genesis paradigms, which are defined on the basis of distance education functions’ interchange. Distance education genesis is described within nine stages and is expressed as a holistic model through objectives, approaches and functions genesis. On the basis of this model, distance learning genesis cycles and their components are identified. In accordance with modern teaching theories, distance education objectives and functions are substantiated in technological and educational paradigm interchange contexts, defining consensus and dichotomy of teaching / learning processes.
Volume 81, Issue 3 (2018), pp. 25–40
The researches justify the importance of using IT in the process. However, the use of IT in the teaching environment is a new challenge in protecting and enhancing the health of primary students. The natural tendency of children, the need of the use of IT in the process of teaching (learning) necessitates the management of this process. Research aim – to examine expanse’s tendencies of IT in primary education and to reveal the features of creating a healthy teaching (learning) environment for pupils. 237 teachers of primary school from the west of Lithuania have been surveyed. The study showed that primary school teachers and students are not yet appointed with a variety of IT tools. Although almost all of the teachers had computers in their classrooms and almost half of the respondents had a digital projector, only a very small part of the teachers had interactive whiteboards and tablets in their classrooms. Primary schools have purchased different IT tools for co-use, but only few of the teachers have those tools in their classrooms. The lack of IT tools in the classroom limits the possibilities of their use in the education process. The study revealed that the knowledge of the primary students about the safe use of IT tools, healthcare while working with IT is not related to their skills. Children lack the ability to learn practical activities, their application in life situations and healthy behaviours. Although a lot of teachers think that primary students are aware of the safe use of IT and the effect of misuse of IT, only one third or less of primary school teachers agreed that primary students are able to properly sit at the desk using IT, to do eye exercises, to protect their eyesight, to adjust eye and hand movements, etc.
Some of the Russian-speaking teachers in minority schools in Latvia have to teach bilingually. That is, they are required to use both Latvian and Russian within the scope of one lesson. However, due to insufficient knowledge of Latvian they often cannot do that properly. In this study I describe the strategies they use to solve this problem. Problem-oriented interviews with teachers, participant observation and personal experience were used to collect information. I have discovered five strategies for the teaching. Each strategy involves different ratio of Russian and Latvian within a lesson. Three of them also imply a significant amount of cheating and pretence. Four strategies used for document handling in Latvian were discovered as well.