This article presents burial rites of State of Lithuania in the 13th and 14th centuries, reveals its features and searches for the interaction between the burial rites and the development of the society. Burial rites are analyzed in a broad context of processes: the spreading of the cremation, the reformation of the religion, the unification of the material culture, the disappearance of regional differences and the establishment of the Lithuanian nation. Furthermore, the data of anthropology and genetics is examined. In the article, the burial rites of the 13th and 14th centuries are seen as an integral part of the evolution of State of Lithuania.
Journal:Acta Historica Universitatis Klaipedensis
Volume 40 (2020): The Anti-Soviet Resistance: New Approaches to the Lithuanian Partisan War = Antisovietinė rezistencija Lietuvoje: partizaninio karo tyrimų naujos prieigos, pp. 97–139
The survey and excavation of bunkers and dug-outs from the anti-Soviet partisan war in Lithuania which started in 2010 was a turning point both in the research into guerrilla warfare and Lithuanian archaeology. The next decade was marked by an increasing number of surveys and excavations at Lithuanian guerrilla war sites, the expanded directions of research, and their dissemination both to scholarly and general audiences becoming an integral part of Lithuanian archaeology. The article outlines the research into guerrilla war sites that were conducted in Lithuania between 2010 and 2019, presents their results, and discusses the survey and excavation directions of bunkers, dug-outs and their surroundings, camps, battlefields, disposal sites, and other partisan war sites. The author outlines the changes that have taken place in the research into the partisan war, and discusses the significance of archaeological data and the future prospects of research into the anti-Soviet partisan war in Lithuania as a separate field of archaeology.
On 13 August 1949, in Užpelkiai Forest in northern Lithuania, on the border of the Grinkiškis and Baisogala rural districts in Radviliškis County, a battle by Lithuanian partisans that had a significant impact on the history of the Prisikėlimas (Resurrection) district took place. The leaders of the Lietuvos Laisvės Kovos Sąjūdis (Movement for the Struggle for Lithuania’s Freedom) operated in this district. Based on the approach of modern conflict archaeology, the authors of the article, helped by volunteers, determined the location of the Battle of Užpelkiai Forest (in the Grinkiškis rural district, Radviliškis County), and collected a lot of new archaeological and historical data, in order to reconstruct the progress of the attack by MGB (Ministry of State Security) troops and the partisan defence. By referring to complex research results, the article gives the surnames and duties in the organisation of all the partisans who participated, as well as the circumstances and progress of the battle. It shows the importance of the Battle of Užpelkiai Forest to the Lietuvos Laisvės Kovos Sąjūdis in 1949–1950. The case study of field research into the battle in the partisan war shows how complex historical and archaeological research complements the picture of the partisan war with facts and artefacts, clarifies or denies old interpretations, and leads us to new ones.