Volume 67, Issue 2 (2014), pp. 19–34
In the article the paradigm of traditional public administration is analysed by trying to accomplish the critique of the model in the cultural dimension direction and by identifying the crucial elements of post-modernism which, according to the authors, had made an impact for the formation of such a model. There are also revealed the parameters of post-modernism in metanarrative theories of rationality, as the grounded technological and instrumental relation towards traditional paradigm principles by stressing the hierarchical governance, bureaucratic relations, control mechanisms, rational organisational structure and functional division with professionalism. By identifying the main traits of traditional paradigm, the aspects and tendencies of post-modernist organisations are revealed and the controversial answer to the question about the relevance of traditional public administration model is presented.
Having analysed the forms of the shapes of the ethnic musical instruments of the mankind, the data of the research leads to the presumption that the musical instruments convey the images of the fauna, mode of life, which reflects on very ancient processes of the humanity. The great part of the images of these instruments shows not only the animal kingdom and tools of everyday life, but also the ancient totemic world outlook and the means of burying – process of traveling to ‘another’ world. These means were canoes, boats and even sea ships. Connection with the water and sea propose the idea about the features concerning two cultures – fishing and shipping. The reflections and relics are evident in the shapes of the ethnic musical instruments of mankind. However, the ‘Sea’ culture is noticeable only in the civilisations of ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece and in the traditions of using the musical instruments of the current people living in these areas. The ‘Water’ culture relates with fishing in the local rivers and lakes and is evident in the traditions of many nations of the world. The images of the fishing culture are the most noticeable feature of the instruments of the Baltic people.
The concept of ethnogenesis offers a theoretical approach to hybridity and syncretism that finesses the tensions between “New Amazonian Ethnography” and “New Amazonian History” by simultaneously encompassing the study of indigenous ontologies and alternative constructions of history (i.e., “mytho-historical narratives”) as well as the reconstruction of history from all available sources. Ethnogenesis can be defined as a process of authentically re-making new social identities through creatively rediscovering and refashioning components of ‘tradition,’ such as oral narratives, written texts, and material artefacts. Understood in these terms, ethnogenesis allows us to explore the cultural creativity of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples alike in the making of new interpretive and political spaces that allow people to construct enduring social identities while moving forward in the globalizing nation-states of Latin America.
Volume 10 (2008): Astronomy and Cosmology in Folk Traditions and Cultural Heritage, pp. 268–272
In the past three decades cosmic events such as supernovae and the impact of large meteorites have undergone a remarkable renaissance in being considered as a trigger of radical change, not only on geological timescales but also among prehistoric cultures. In such theories, archaeological horizons indicative of destruction events are combined with evidence from dendrochronology, ice-core analysis, mythical traditions etc. and are put forward as evidence for cultural disasters caused by cosmic events. This paper critically scrutinizes the underlying concepts of “cosmic catastrophe” and “cultural disaster” as well as the methods that are meant to corroborate them. Special emphasis is placed upon the limitations that show up in analyzing myth and folklore.
Volume 10 (2008): Astronomy and Cosmology in Folk Traditions and Cultural Heritage, pp. 25–28
Like several other Gran Chaco indigenous groups, the Wichí identify several constellations in the sky; among them, Venus appears as an important celestial object generally identified with the mythical motif of the Star Woman. This character (kates lhukwetah) is crucial in an important myth associated with Venus. The mythical motif of the Star Woman will therefore be analysed. The cultural meanings implicit in Wichí representations of women and gender relationships are tracked in several social, symbolic, celestial and material contexts. Meaningful relationships between celestial beings (Venus), cosmological representations (Star Woman) and feminine social life (material culture, string figures, marriage alliance, initiation rites) are verified and analyzed.