An aging population is defined in the scientific literature as changes in the structural age composition of the population, which leads to growth in the population of those who are 60 years and older. The aging of population is a social and economic problem that needs to be understood and addressed. Aging of the population has a significant impact on national economies, as well as within individual regions of the country. The old age index has a significant impact on regional supply of services. It is worth stressing that in order to improve a community’s quality of life and reduce disparities between regions, it is necessary to continually assess the level of development and regional development opportunities. Evaluation of the regional socio-economic situation should be performed periodically, so that regional policy measures can be directed to the areas of greatest need.
Straipsnyje nagrinėjama finansų krizių sąvoka, aptariami finansų krizių skirstymo teoriniai aspektai. Nustačius, kad finansų krizių klasifikavimas ir skirstymas pagal panašius požymius leistų jas geriau suprasti ir palengvintų jų poveikio ekonomikai analizę, sudaryta finansų krizių tipų klasifikacinė lentelė. Apibendrinamojoje finansų krizių tipų klasifikacinėje lentelėje pateikiami finansų krizių tipai, nurodomos pagrindinės jų kilimo priežastys, pristatyti pagrindiniai poveikio ekonomikai rodikliai bei išvardyti istoriniai šių finansų krizių tipų pavyzdžiai. Tyrimo metu nustatytos trys Lietuvos ekonomiką neigiamai paveikusios finansų krizės – „Bankų krizė“ (1995), „Rusijos finansų krizė“ (1998) ir „Globali finansų krizė“ (2008), apibrėžtos jų kilimo priežastys. Akcentuojant darnaus ekonominio vystymosi prielaidas Lietuvoje ir siekiant tyrimų pagrindu kurti regioninę politiką, šios finansų krizės suklasifikuotos pagal sudarytą tipologiją.
Volume 80, Issue 2 (2018), pp. 1–22
The brand and customer – based brand equity, which can increase consumer benevolence and encourage them to stay loyal to the brand or service provider, can be an important instrument for corporate competition. The aim of this article is to evaluate practical application of the theoretical model of the interfaces between customer – based brand equity and customer loyalty while carrying out the survey of telecommunication consumers. Lithuanian telecommunication market is currently divided by the three main competitors – Telia Lietuva AB, Tele2 JSC and Bitė Lietuva JSC. The brand Telia has been selected for the analysis. The first phase of the survey was carried out in April–May of 2017, and the second phase – in February–March of 2018. The data obtained allows us to test hypotheses about model’s ability to evaluate the competing brands and to compare consumer positions with respect to them at different periods.
The global tourism marketwitnesses the increasingly intensifying processes of altering competition andcustomer needs. Competition is taking place not only among tourism serviceproviders, but also among other participants in the leisure services market –entertainment business organizations, trade and leisure centres. Within the European tourismsystem the highest potential to increase the market share currently belongs tothe Central and Eastern European states, which include Lithuania as well. Seeking to makeuse of these opportunities, it is indispensable not only to create tourisminfrastructure, but also to search for other ways of representing uniquetourism services. World Tourism Organization experts carried out a number ofsurveys, the goal of which was to determine the aims and presumptions of atouristic travel. It was established that even in the presence of changingleisure and holiday habits and fashions, one of the most important factors forchoosing a target travel destination remains the touristic attractiveness ofplaces of interest.
Changes caused by globalization changed consumer behaviour. It is passed from the era of items to the era of services causingemotions. On the other hand, it’s still a speculation, whether globalization affects the behaviour of Lithuanian people in choosingtourism. The research found that the Lithuanian residents still live in the era of items. For them is most important material safetyand image through items. To meet these needs Lithuanian residents prefer traveling abroad. Outbound tourism is attractive for thepopulation of Lithuania, but they frequently travel in Lithuanian territory. Lithuanian tourists are planning travel usually by themselves;this process is combined with rational. Economic, demographic and cultural factors have the greatest influence on the choiceof Lithuanians to make trips. Social, psychological and situational factors in the marketing mix have less impact.
Volume 68, Issue 3 (2014), pp. 91–108
In the article was analysed service quality and its impact on firm’s profitability. The profitability factors in the economic activities were determined and the importance of profitability analysis was emphasized. Summarised profitability in telecommunications firms. In the article were listed analysed firms’ (for the analysis were selected services, which face high need from customers – services of Lithuania telecommunications firms LTD “Bitė Lietuva”, LTD “Omnitel”, LTD “Tele2”) service quality improvements as well as calculated profitability indexes. Statistical analysis and evaluation was made. The evaluation of the data shows, that LTD “Bitė Lietuva” indexes are correlated, but the correlation is not significant because of lack of data. Activity of LTD “Omnitel” shows, that improved service quality did not affect firm’s profitability. Improved service quality of LTD “Tele2” affected only part of analised profitability indexes. Inspite this the results show significant dependence.
The image formation and support, reputation-building and active marketing are vital for the existence of the nowadays modern country and its development. Today the country’s nature, history, people and traditions became the exclusive brands that strengthens the economy and cross-border relations, a competitive advantage is obtained. There are many image definitions and classifications, each author analyses it from own perspective. It was found that individual elements make a big influence for a general country’s image. In order to use it effectively systemic attitude is required. Country’s image in the international tourism market is explained by tourist behavioural characteristics: how a person behaves in respect of country, how he or she perceives the country – as a neighbour or distant, closed or open, acceptable or unacceptable, how much the person trusts the provided information, if he or she is ready to travel to the country. Personal characteristics has an influence for perceived location’s image. Despite Lithuania’s efforts to make the image better abroad and inside the country, it’s rank on the international agencies surveys, evaluating country’s political and economic situation in the world context and how famous it is, remains low. There are no innovative strategy for building Lithuania’s image. During the 2006–2015 period, there were no core changes in associations, created for foreigners by the word “Lithuania”. The research found that foreigners imagine Lithuania as underdeveloped, neglected agriculture country, people are closed, not willing to communicate – the same as was imagined in 2006. Lithuania’s touristic image was better after the visit. More facts about Lithuania was known by tourists from neighbouring countries. During the 9 years Lithuania’s touristic image has not changed.
Šiandien susiduriame su situacija, kai turizmo sektorius nuolat sparčiai auga. Skaičiuojama, kad bendras tarptautinių turistų skaičius iki 2030 m. sieks 1,8 milijardo. Šiuo tyrimu siekiama įvertinti turizmo poveikį ekonominiu, sociokultūriniu, aplinkosauginiu aspektais dabartinės turizmo apimties tendencijų kontekste. Taikomi mokslinės literatūros analizės, sintezės, statistinių duomenų analizės, situacinio modeliavimo metodai. Tyrimo apimtyje teigiamas ir neigiamas turizmo poveikis analizuotas išskiriant tris pagrindines dimensijas: ekonominę, sociokultūrinę bei aplinkosauginę. Neigiamo poveikio persvara ypač ryški aplinkosauginiu aspektu. Nuolat augantys turizmo mastai lėmė perteklinio turizmo sąvokos apibrėžtį. Daugelyje labiausiai lankomų pasaulio šalių metinis turistų skaičius viršija gyventojų skaičių. Pernelyg didelė turizmo apimtis stiprina neigiamą turizmo poveikį. Be abejo, siekiant išsaugoti palankią ekonominę, sociokultūrinę ir gamtinę aplinką, paskatinti turizmo teikiamą naudą ir minimizuoti neigiamą poveikį, turizmo reiškinys turi būti kontroliuojamas.
Countries and businesses focus on processes optimization aiming to cut cost and increase profit. The main keyword for achieving it is usually “innovations”. Innovations is one of the most popular trends in most economies and businesses. The paradox is that there is the lack of understanding the concept both in business and science. The term of innovations is not a new topic in the research literature. However, the problem is that the definition of the concept of innovations is constantly evolving and there is no clear definition. The paper aims to define the concept of innovations and identify the changes in the concept by reviewing the scientific literature.Literature analysis revealed that the development of innovations concept started in 1934, approaching the concept from the novelty perspective. Later new perspectives were introduced such as interaction processes, value creation and social progress. Today the concept can be defined as following: innovation is a company or consumer-initiated economic, managerial, psychological or technological process of renewal within a company, which results in greater added value and a competitive advantage.