The Polish-Lithuanian conflict did not die down in the autumn of 1920 after the termination of bloody fighting, but instead persisted. However, from then on, the conflict continued mainly at the diplomatic level, in propaganda, and in the operations of the secret services: subversive and sabotage-related activities, propaganda-based subversion, disinformation and intelligence-related activities. On the Polish side, these activities were conducted by agencies of the Second Department of the General Staff (Central Headquarters) of the Polish army, and on the Lithuanian side by the Intelligence (Information) Department of the General Staff (Supreme Staff). A distinctive feature of Lithuanian intelligence directed against Poland was the substantial involvement of women, and using Lithuanians who were citizens of the Second Polish Republic doing their mandatory military service in the Polish army. The most costly victories over Polish intelligence were attributed to women agents of Lithuanian intelligence.
Straipsnyje nagrinėjama meno kūrinio motyvų analizės problema. Bandoma sujungti esamas motyvų analizės teorijos kryptis, taip pat – nubrėžti perspektyvias tolesnių tyrimų kryptis. Atskleisti pagrindiniai principai, kuriais literatūrinių kategorijų sistemoje grindžiamas terminas motyvas. Atlikus analizę, suformuoti kriterijai, pagal kuriuos galima atpažinti dominuojančius motyvus poezijoje.
Johann Jacob Quandt (1686–1772), professor primarius of theology at the University of Königsberg, chief court preacher, and General Superintendent of Prussia, is known as a publisher of Lithuanian books, supervisor of the Lithuanian Language Seminar, and a historiographer of Lithuanian writings. Quandt made his name as one of the first historiographers of Lithuanian writings by German forewords in Lithuanian books published under his guidance, the first printed Bible (11735), hymnal Iß naujo pérweizdėtos ir pagérintos Giesmû-Knygos (11732) and postil Trumpas ir prástas Ißguldimas wissû Nedėlês ir ßwentû Dienû Ewangeliû (11750). The article deals with the information on Lithuanian writings presented by Quandt in the manuscript Preußische Presbyterologie (Prussian Presbyterology, before 1772), which is currently stored in Berlin, in the Secret State Archives Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation (GStA PK: XX. HA Hist. StA Königsberg, Hs, Nr. 2, Bd. 1–5).
There are three prefaces in Christian Gottlieb Mielcke’s (1733–1807) dictionary Littauisch-deutsches und Deutsch-littauisches Wörter-Buch (1800). The first is written by the compiler himself; the second by Daniel Jenisch (1762–1804), a Berlin theologian and linguist; and the third by Christoph Friedrich Heilsberg (1726/7–1807), a counsellor in the Königsberg Chamber of War and Domains and inspector of East Prussian schools. The ‘Friend’s Note’ (Nachschrift eines
Freundes) of the philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is placed after all of them. It is a friendly, quite short, one-and-a-half-page commentary on the Lithuanians and their language, written in free form, and cannot be called a true preface.
The article analyses the circumstances of the appearance of Kant’s ‘Friend’s Note’ in the dictionary, and discusses the ideas expressed in it.
The article is a study of the ways the mythical concepts of the English mythological conceptual world-view are reflected in the Old English lexis. To explain this, we combine all the concepts under analysis into conceptual segments according to their dominant conceptual features. In the article, we specifically dwell on the conceptual segment of the RELIGIOUS SPHERE, which integrates three sub-segments, GOD (god), DEVIL (deofol), and RELIGIOUS/SPIRITUAL NOTIONS.
This article addresses universal laws of the functioning of open systems involved in myth-oriented semiosis, categorisation and world-modelling. The paper focuses on isomorphic regularities occurring in irrational rationalisation and respective verbal phenomena. The outlined systemic and inter-systemic interactions are interpreted from the standpoint of M-logic methodology, semiotics, cognitive linguistics and cultural studies. The paper suggests formalised notations for logical construals, and demonstrates the cognitive premises of myth-oriented designations and the etymological reconstruction of a basic operator’s content.
The article focuses on problems of chronology and textual development in the Ruthenian translation of the Czech Lucidarius. This translation is known from five published and one unpublished Cyrillic manuscript copies written between the second quarter of the 16th and the early 19th century. A new explanation of the information contained in these manuscripts regarding the time of the translation and the dating of the Czech original is proposed. Particular attention is paid to establishing the initial structure and sequence of the texts in the Ruthenian translation, which reflect its non-extant Czech printed source.
This article focuses on compound nouns and adjectives in the first dictionary by K. Sirvydis Promptuarium dictionum Polonicarum, Latinarum et Lituanicarum. The analysed compounds are firstly divided into groups according to the part of speech the constituents of the compound belong to, seeking to identify the most productive model of compounds in this 17th-century source. Moreover, attention is also paid to the relationship between elements of compound words and to rare compound words of indirect meaning. Finally, the use of Lithuanian compounds is compared to neighbouring Polish words, to clarify if Sirvydas tended to use mechanical translation.
Before the mid-20th century, the Jews in Žemaitija were the most numerous and economically and culturally significant minority, with close contacts with the Žemaitijans. The paper focuses on the stereotypical characteristics of Jews as reflected in Žemaitijan dialect texts from an ethnolinguistic point of view. The analysis of these characteristics provides knowledge about the evaluated nation from the perspective of the evaluating nation. The research into stereotypical images of Jews rests on the view that they consist of a specific set of certain common characteristics and traits, and an analysis of linguistic expression provides more detailed information about them. The research has revealed that the ethnic stereotype of Jewish people in Žemaitijan dialect texts is quite positive.
The foundation of the Republic of Latvia in 1918 changed significantly ethnic relationships in the country. Ethnic Latvians became not only the numerical but also the political and cultural majority, and thereby the concept and status of ethnic minorities were created. This article examines the visibility of ethnic minorities in the newly established state, focusing on the case of the Archives of Latvian Folklore, founded in 1924, as one of the core institutions that strengthened national cultural values. The ‘folklore of other ethnicities’ category was introduced and discussed at the archive during the first years of its existence. Volunteer folklore collectors played an active role in the discussions, revealing the bottom-up aspects of the implementation of the archive’s policy. However, rather than pointing to the ethnic affiliation of the involved people, the archival records reflect more often the blurred linguistic boundaries in Latvian society.