Humanity benefits from the achievements of modern technology, but man cannot avoid pain, long-term suffering, and spiritual problems. In modern society, as in all eras, man still raises fundamental questions of being: What is the meaning of life? What is spirituality? How to solve spiritual problems? Therefore, spiritual counselling or assistance is receiving more and more attention. Its needs and benefits are undoubtedly noticeable, because spiritual assistance tries to respond to the spiritual needs of people today, and to be a landmark in spreading spiritual well-being. Although spiritual counselling in Lithuania is still searching for explicit boundaries of function and definition, it is becoming quite clear that it is not the same as psychological counselling. Of course, spiritual counselling is not so far from psychological counselling, as they both have some features in common. However, the priority of a spiritual counsellor is existential questions and the search for answers to queries about the meaning of life, suffering, death, love, etc. Spiritual counselling tries to approach a person through the prism of faith. A unique element in spiritual counselling is not the methods used by the counsellors, but their personality, their world-view, faith, values, and attitude towards other people. Therefore, in order to substantiate the identity and importance of spiritual counselling, this article aims to reveal the essence and meaning of spiritual counselling.
The concept of meditation is common when discussing various forms of spiritual assistance. It is usually associated with eastern traditions, but it is also sometimes mentioned in a Christian context, and it often becomes a subject of discussion. The article aims to reveal the concept and meaning of Christian meditation in more detail, by analysing its interpretations and the etymology of the term, and by identifying specific features of Christian meditation. Meditation in this context is revealed as a Christian form of prayer, inseparable from individuality, dialogue and Christocentricity.
The article investigates the source of the historiographical topic of heroic paganism in the laments/elegies of Dionizas Poška (1764–1830). It is known that Poška read the manuscript of the first history of Lithuania (1822) by Simonas Daukantas (1793–1864). The article hypothesises that the choice of Poška’s written language ‘to lean towards the Samogitian dialect’, and the increase in a lexicon characteristic of the historiographical genre in the laments, are connected with his reading Daukantas’ manuscript. Since until now researchers into Daukantas’ legacy do not agree on the date of the completion of his first manuscript history, it is believed that research of this kind will make it possible to clarify it. The research leads to the conclusion that Poška read the ‘History of Lithuania’ by Daukantas in 1824, because in verse dating from that year we find a lexicon which is characteristic of Daukantas’ work. In elegies written after 1824, Poška found Lithuanian equivalents of the traditional topics of the heroic and lost nation, which are often taken from the text of Daukantas, and are not literal translations of Polish literature. Daukantas’ text inspired Poška to talk about a lost Golden Age, and so he can be considered a pioneer of Lithuanian historical elegy. Following Daukantas, the poet learned to replace rhetorical writing with an authentic expression of thought characteristic of Romantic authors.
The article describes the origins and development of the Palanga Lutheran congregation, from its formation at the beginning of the 19th century to its closure by the communist authorities in the early postwar years after the Second World War. The life of the affiliate in the parish of Rucava is discussed, as well as its attempts to build its own church in Palanga. The congregation’s life was particularly revitalised after the city was reunited with Lithuania in 1921. As an affiliate of the Kretinga parish, and supported by it and the Gustav-Adolf-Werk, it bought its own prayer house in 1928. The article describes ecclesiastical life in this period, the disastrous effects of the 1938 fire, when the congregation lost its place of worship, and the challenges it faced in the first years of the Soviet occupation.
In the article, we analyse the natural right of parents to raise their children, the law arising from their being natural parents and bringing children into the world. We make an analysis of the problematical understanding of natural law and rights. These form not only the point of view of the right education and the educational powers of separate individuals (parents), but also of all of society and the state. We analyse the challenges to the modern Western world which questions the ability of parents to raise their children in the best and most acceptable way to them. We delve deeper into the pre-Christian understanding of natural rights and laws exposed in the reflections and conceptual understanding of the Ancient philosophers, as well as the Christian approach in understanding the natural law and rights of parents on the understanding of children’s education, analysing and understanding the guidelines presented by the Pontifical Council for the Family, and looking at the tradition of the Roman Catholic Church’s concept of education.
The central principle and goal of Christian life is the lifelong pursuit of Christ-likeness in our thinking and our relationships with people and the world. People are called to grow, to celebrate, to seek true friendship with God in their present life situation. The essence of holiness, the fullness of the Christian life, is union with Christ, living his mysteries, which is possible in every situation of life. The period of widowhood is painful, but it is an invitation to purify oneself inwardly, to grow in love, and to serve one’s neighbours and all other members of the Church and of society. This is the origin of the spirituality of widowhood, a holiness based on faith. Widows can contribute to the holiness of the Church by living in God’s grace, by accepting and managing their situation psychologically, and by giving themselves up to God and to others. Widows often experience the loss of a spouse as an irreversible fact, a loss that matures them, so that, in the light of their faith, they are able to adapt to the changed reality and rebuild their lives.
The article presents the phenomenon of the existential loneliness of elderly people. The concept of existential loneliness is analysed from philosophical, theological, psychological and sociological points of view. The existential loneliness of elderly people is treated as a social problem that begins with a decrease in social abilities and individual differences. Signs of existential loneliness and methods of recognition are presented.
Šių metų rugsėjo 22 d. į rudenėjančio Užvenčio kraštotyros muziejaus salę iš įvairių Lietuvos vietų į mokslinę konferenciją „Sename dvare, arba įstabus Šatrijos Raganos pasaulis“ rinkosi rašytojos palikimo tyrėjai ir jos kūrybos gerbėjai. Konferencija buvo skirta Marijos Pečkauskaitės-Šatrijos Raganos 145-osioms gimimo metinėms ir apysakos / romano „Sename dvare“ pirmojo leidimo 100-ajam jubiliejui paminėti. Šiandienos greitai kintančios realybės kontekste, kai žmonija išgyvena humanizmo krizę, o mąstytojai siūlo įvairius ateities žmogaus modelius, Šatrijos Raganos kūryboje plėtojama individo ir visuomenės susidūrimo, konflikto, santarvės temos, apskritai žmogaus ir pasaulio likimo problema, rodo, kad rašytoja buvo pasiūliusi ir suformulavusi ne vieną universalų, laiko permainas įveikusį teiginį. Iš tyrėjų konferencijos dalyviai išgirdo ne tik įdomių rašytojos kūrybos interpretacijų, bet ir suprato jos aktualumą, ir, kaip ne dažnai būna tiriant mūsų klasikus, buvo supažindinti su naujais faktais.