The article examines the sermon of the famous early 19th century Lithuanian preacher Jurgis Ambroziejus Pabrėža (1771–1849) to East Prussian Catholics, named “Sermon on great Happiness”, given on the occasion of the Great Jubilee on June 29, 1827 in Drangauskine (near Tilsit). This is the only known sermon of J. A. Pabrėža given in Prussia. The language and spelling of this sermon differ from other texts of the same period. The word Gylukys (in German: das Glück) used in the title of the sermon indicates that the author was prepared to adapt the text to the addressee. The article examines which Prussian Lithuanian publications J. A. Pabrėža used to prepare the sermon in a language understood by the addressee.
Overcoming guilt and feeling spiritual peace is a fundamental human endeavour. The church calls for reconciliation with oneself, others and God and it calls to seek salvation – eternal happiness and peace. One of the most active preachers of the teaching of the Church was priest Jurgis Pabrėža (1771–1849), whose 250th birth anniversary has been commemorated in 2021. He was the man with an ambition to serve others wholeheartedly so that we “receive salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Thessalonians 5: 9). Speaking of human guilt and liberation from the oppressive feeling of guilt in his sermons, Fr. J. Pabrėža provided the example of Cain’s story. J. Pabrėža mentions the biblical name of Cain in his sermon collection “Sermons on Various Matters” 22 times. Of 48 sermons in this collection Cain is mentioned in 5 of them. Examples of Cain’s experience of sin and guilt are provided when discussing the spiritual well-being of a person: who has no hope of being saved; who does not commit sin by killing another man; why is it bad to desire what belongs to another; what evil is there in a jealous sneer towards others; what is wrong with a blasphemous confession? In the biblical story of Cain and examples of this narrative in the sermons of Fr. J. Pabrėža we see that a person experiences a disturbing feeling of guilt as a subconscious state of insecurity, helplessness and spiritual suffering, and as a lack of meaning in life. This sense of guilt has its own cause – sin, i.e. acting in the world against the laws of nature.
The article examines the Lutheran liturgy in a theological and historical context. It analyzes its structure, surveys the criteria for liturgical reforms in the sixteenth century, considers the possible classification of a wide variety of Lutheran agendas as well as the influence of pietism and the Enlightenment on the liturgical life of the church. Particular attention is given to the Prussian Union and its agenda which has awakened a new liturgical sensibility among the Lutheran Churches and prompted them to re-appreciate their confessional and liturgical heritage, leading to the preparation of new agendas that more clearly reflected their confessional identity. The influence of liturgical movements on the sacramental life of the church and the results of the liturgical reforms carried out by the Lutheran churches of the United States, Germany, and Scandinavia in the twentieth century are also considered.
The article analyzes the psychological measures that support human existence in prison. The main source chosen is the novel “Notes from the House of the Dead” (1861–1862) by Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821–1881), a classic of Russian literature, which was written based on his personal experience as a political prisoner (1849–1859). The author, above the gloomy life in prison, the poor household and the dehumanization of convicts, raises the effort to remain human and the hidden features of personal goodness hidden in the prison system. The article discusses why prisoners feel differently being in the same environment. The provision of needs according to the hierarchy of human needs established by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow and the changed concept of freedom served as a psychological support for the convicts. Survival was aided by a different perception of time spent in prison as non-existent in human life and physical work as a way to be forgotten.
The spiritual aspect is one of essential components of human existence; therefore, it becomes an integral part of holistic support to a human being. Christian spiritual assistance in its various forms is becoming gradually established in our country, and there are attempts to define it in both juridical and theological or psychological aspects. Therefore, it requires a deeper glance and a more detailed analysis. In relation to this problem, the article deals with features of Christian spiritual assistance in the context of perception of spirituality and its relation to psychological support. Relevant approaches to spirituality, features of spiritual and psychological counselling as well as importance of Christ-centred spiritual assistance are discussed.
We will analyse the cultural phenomenon as a product created by human genius. We will ask how works the interaction of culture and human life today and how cultural transformation influences the process of modelling perceptions of man himself. We will analyse how the cultural perception of what is “normal” or what is “value” is replaced by what is pleasant and useful. How a new concept of normality and value is created. We are creating a society on the foundation of exceptions without borders or a respectful and tolerant society?
Die Umstände der Bildung der litauischen Intelligenz Entstehung und ihrer konfessionellen Gruppen am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts ist eines der relevantesten und am wenigsten untersuchten Themen der litauischen Geschichtsschreibung. Der Artikel untersucht die Änderung der akademischen Bildungspolitik der litauischen evangelisch-reformierten Synode, die in den Beschlüssen der Synoden im Zeitraum der Jahren 1867–1914 festgehalten wurde, und ist ein wesentlicher Bestandteil dieses Problems.
Collaboration skills, multicultural awareness, and intercultural sensitivity are essential to the careers of maritime business professionals. The self-development of a multiculturally conscious personality contributes to ensuring safety in the maritime business. Researchers point out that more attention in the maritime industry should be paid to the employee’s personality than to increasing automation of shipping processes. The heterogeneity of employee teams at the national and religious levels is associated with the problem of increased psychoemotional stress. Instead of emphasizing the teaching of intercultural communication rules, it is appropriate to enable future maritime business professionals to cultivate values, to realize their cognitive interests, to understand that the culture or religion of their colleagues is existentially dear to them, and to be open to a culture of dialogue. Therefore, the article presents more relevant methodological prerequisites for the development of multicultural self-awareness and religious tolerance in the spirit of Neo-Thomism, theistic humanism, personalism, and constructivism.