Šiais laikais jau klausiama, ar kompiuteris gali pranokti žmogų, jį kažkaip pakeisti egzistenciniuose dalykuose. Pavyzdžiui, vykstant Rusijos agresijos prieš Ukrainą karui matome, kad mašinos, dronai, apskritai žvalgyba be informacinių technologijų nebeapsieina. Karą laimi tie, kurie labiau šioje srityje pažengę, turi daugiau technikos. Didelis pavojus tyko dirbtiniam intelektui vis labiau kėsinantis užkariauti mūsų gyvenimo dalį. Pavyzdžiui, robotas jau gali kurti dainas, rašyti tekstus norima tema, atlikti su mokslu susijusias užduotis ir t. t. Viso to nebaugu priimti, jei tuo nebus piktnaudžiaujama. Lieka neatsakytas klausimas, kaip atskirti, kas yra tikra, o kas – ne. Dirbtinis intelektas niekada nepakeis autentiškos kultūros, religijos, bendrystės, paties gyvenimo. Kūrėjas sukūrė žmogų, kuris ieško amžinųjų atsakymų į egzistencijos klausimus, veržiasi prie dvasinių vertybių ir trokšta amžinumo, nemirtingumo. Jokiam robotui tai nebūdinga.
This article analyses the phenomenon of fear based on the Holy Scriptures and Christian theological and pastoral insights. Fear is highlighted as a result of sin and the fall of man. The attributes and consequences of the fear of man and the fear of God, and existential aspects of fear, are analysed. Elements of the reverent fear of God and the importance of growing in it are emphasised. Possibilities and ways of overcoming fear are discussed, and practical guidelines are provided for identifying fear and helping to discover ways to overcome it through Christian spiritual help.
The article analyses briefly the poetry of the Lithuanian poet Vytautas Mačernis, and especially the influence of Existentialist philosophy on his work. Authors such as Soren Kierkegaard, Karl Jaspers, Martin Heidegger, and the influence of their thought on this author, are touched on. Mačernis searched in philosophy for answers to questions that constantly arose for him about the meaning of his existence in this world, purifying true values. He believed that in this way he could find the answer to how to remain human in a constantly changing and dangerous world. That is how he found God and Christian values, love of country, and patriotism. He was moved by the dialectic of life and death, the opposition of good and evil, and the majesty of human life. The poet believed firmly in eternal life, that death does not end a person’s existence: it only changes, not ceases. Mačernis was constantly looking for truth and answers to questions of human existence, feeling that his life was temporary, and that he needed to hurry if he wanted to live meaningfully.
During the ‘Khrushchev Thaw’, the Soviet government eased its anti-religious policies, and this opened up the possibility for the Lithuanian Lutheran Church to publish its first postwar hymnal. However, due to its too ‘modern’ language, the 1956 hymnal was not introduced in parishes, but was only intended for personal use. The demand for a hymnal in line with the modern Lithuanian language remained relevant. Therefore, the 1970 synod decided to prepare a hymnal, the texts of which would be closer to the old hymns in the 1936 Lithuania Minor hymnal. The hymnal was published in 1982, and was introduced for use in many parishes. The third edition appeared in 1988. The article describes the challenges the Church faced in preparing a hymnal during the Soviet period, both internally and from the atheist Soviet government, which viewed religious literature as the manifestation of a foreign ideology.
When looking at spiritual and psychological counselling, the process, characteristics and problems, and the needs of the people involved in counselling, it can be seen that both of these non-material forms of assistance have a number of similarities, and also essential differences. This is to be expected, as both forms of assistance are categorised and treated as types of counselling. It is worth noting that in one form of counselling the focus is more on spiritual matters, while in the other the focus is on addressing a person’s psychological issues. A psychologist plays the role of a mirror for the individual, linking their well-being to active psychological efforts to help themselves, while a spiritual counsellor does not limit their activities solely to psychology and its techniques and knowledge, but seeks strength in the spiritual realm. By understanding the differences and similarities in the application of assistance methods, those seeking help can choose and seek the most appropriate form of assistance. Therefore, this article focuses on revealing the differences and points in common between spiritual counselling and psychological counselling, as ways to provide assistance to those in need. Although practitioners of counselling use the same or similar professional counselling skills, it is also important to note the fundamental differences, and to identify the values that practitioners of both spiritual and psychological counselling adhere to. In order to justify the distinctiveness and identity of spiritual and psychological counselling, the article aims to reveal the essence, the meaning, the differences, and the points in common between these forms of assistance.
In the article we analyse the approach to the family, fatherhood and motherhood presented in Roman Catholic theology. We analyse the period after the Second Vatican Council, and discuss the new opportunities for theological knowledge and analysis, in order to see how a unified approach to man and the family, and how the creation of a relationship with God is developed through the family. We analyse how, by understanding who a person is, we can find answers to questions of the meaning of life, as well as the discovery of the perfection of parenthood. We ask how the question of God and religious knowledge can serve to spread human love in the family.