Presented here are results of analyses of excavated skeletal material from the early modern period in Tartu, Estonia, for evidence of syphilis. Our understanding of the incidence of syphilis in Estonia, and the causes of its spread, are discussed. All of the skeletal samples that were positively identified for syphilis included evidence of bone lesions on the cranium. Percentages of remains with signs indicative of syphilis were found at a rate of 0.50%, which accords with a figure of 0.77% from Britain for the same period. Evidence presented suggests that syphilis was a problem not only in the metropolitan area of Tallinn, but also in the less populous cities of Estonia. It is concluded, given that the excavation sites represent different dates from the period, that syphilis was a significant health problem in early modern Tartu.
This article aims to compare the change of living standard in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia after joining the European Union. The characteristics of living standard are analyzing before joining the EU and after 2004. It is also compared changes of living standard characteristics after the economic crisis. Indicators of living standard, such as the average monthly gross wages, consumer price index, purchasing power, unemployment rate, at-risk-of-poverty rate and others are calculated and compared. The three Baltic states are not only compared with each other, but are also analyzed in the context of the EU. Thus, it can be stated that among the three Baltic States, Estonia is distinguished by highest living standard. Although before the integration Lithuania was ahead of Latvia, but now Lithuania was lower than Latvia by particular characteristics of living standard.
Volume 13 (2010): At the Origins of the Culture of the Balts, pp. 162–174
This study focuses on artefacts with serrated edges made of scapulae occurring in assemblages from Late Bronze Age fortified settlements in Estonia. They have usually been interpreted in Estonia as flax-working tools; but recently some doubts have been raised about this use. The article gives an overview of these finds both in Estonia and elsewhere, and discusses possible areas of their use.
Volume 11 (2009): The Horse and Man in European Antiquity (Worldview, Burial Rites, and Military and Everyday Life), pp. 37–47
In the article a survey is given of the information about horse and its exploitation in the Late Bronze Age in Estonia. Concerning the archaeozoological material the finds of horse bones in the Late Bronze Age are discussed. The analysis of finds discusses the bone artefacts connected with the exploitation of horse and artefacts made from horse bones.
Estonian and Latvian small bone spades are discussed. The majority of spades are found in hill-forts and settlement sites from the 11th to the 13th centuries. The tools and technique of manufacture are investigated.