Studying Macedonian culture, we can not help noticing the particular role of folklore ensembles in fostering traditional music and dances, with a view to cherishing the national characteristics. This process is directed by the highest political bodies, which have disseminated the idea in a few spheres. Firstly, by means of actualization of certain matrices in the national folk ensemble Tanec, which was the benchmark followed by amateur ensembles. On the other hand, state television and radio MRTV, started broadcasting performances of folk music ensembles and programs with specific contents, i.e. where folklore prevailed. Analyzing the situation with the folk dance ensemble Tanec, we can notice that its Statute, as well as its first director Mr Manuel Chuchkov (senior political official) emphasized application, promotion and actualization of folklore in the context of socio-ideological engagement. Several papers written by Chuchkov, consider the usage of folk dances by placing them in historical and ideological contents. Such are the examples of folk dances from this period, into which drama elements are imputed, giving the dances specific historical features and being supposed to encourage patriotic feelings. Folklore used to be used as a tool in the socialist period, but it is still being actualized, in Macedonia nowadays.
Using case studies from Macedonia and Lithuania, the authors develop a three level theory of the formation and dynamics of national identity. Case study material is used to show how first order levels of identity such as common language, religion, ethnicity and history are by themselves unmotivated until they are anthropomorphized as national characteristics and capacities, usually in heroic proportion. This second level order of national identity gives life to national identity but also can emphasize differences between different groups of people; a third epistemological level is often required which, if it is effective is a way of selectively emphasizing similarities and eliding differences across these disparate groups that constitute the nation. This theoretical model integrates “top down” and “bottom up” approaches to understanding the formation of national identity and case studies are used to support and illustrate the theory.