This study consists of three main themes: (1) An overview is given about the main findings of the economic theories associated withemployment and labour / paid work; reinterpretation of the concept of labour is also provided, divided into pre-industrial, industrialand post-industrial periods, which the author aligns with the periods of the economic thought. The author interprets globalizationas a factor influencing the transition between industrial and post-industrial periods; and she elaborately introduces its economicsocialand labour market impacts. Among the potential alternatives of employment of the future, this thesis investigates the atypicalforms of employment, public employment and social (solidarity) economy. (2) Central-Eastern European countries and regions areanalyzed, as the territorial unit of the research, from labour market and employment aspects. Afterwards, the author evaluates theemployment situation of her closer environment, Northern Hungary. (3) Afterwards, she contributes suggestions to the criteria ofcreating a more efficient regional employment policy. The aim of this research was analysed the regional labour market situation bythe Central-Eastern European countries and regions, in particular by the North Hungarian region and was gave some proposals for apossible, efficient regional employment policy. Therefore through the multiple transformation of work concept, the demand for alternativeemployment forms has increased along with the significant change of the content. The author believes that these alternativefields and the regional employment policy can provide the answer for global labour market problems in the future. At the beginningof her research, she hypothesised that the position of the North Hungarian region is significantly determined by its special economicand social context which can be derived from the end of communism. The author used Hoover-index, tested the Okun’s law inCentral-Eastern European countries and regions, calculated the Markov-chain model and used factor analysis methods.
This article aims to compare the change of living standard in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia after joining the European Union. The characteristics of living standard are analyzing before joining the EU and after 2004. It is also compared changes of living standard characteristics after the economic crisis. Indicators of living standard, such as the average monthly gross wages, consumer price index, purchasing power, unemployment rate, at-risk-of-poverty rate and others are calculated and compared. The three Baltic states are not only compared with each other, but are also analyzed in the context of the EU. Thus, it can be stated that among the three Baltic States, Estonia is distinguished by highest living standard. Although before the integration Lithuania was ahead of Latvia, but now Lithuania was lower than Latvia by particular characteristics of living standard.
Straipsnyje apžvelgiamas jaunimo nedarbo lygis Europos Sąjungos valstybėse, jaunimo užimtumas ir nedarbas Lietuvoje, Klaipėdos apskrityje bei Klaipėdos mieste. Aptariami jaunimo apklausos rezultatai, kurie suskirstyti į kategorijas, subkategorijas ir teiginius, žyminčius Klaipėdos jaunimo patirtis ieškant darbo. Nustatyta, kad ieškantiesiems darbo dažnai būna sudėtinga suderinti darbo ir studijų grafikus. Darbdaviai pageidauja jaunų darbuotojų su darbo patirtimi. Jie iš esmės nekreipia dėmesio į jaunimo išsimokslinimą, svarbu nurodyti, kokią aukštąją mokyklą ieškantysis darbo yra baigęs. Neutraliai vertina jaunų asmenų diplomus ir jų priedėlius. Remiantis apklausos rezultatais, išskirtos patraukliausios jaunimo įsidarbinimo įmonės, nustatytas šių įmonių erdvinis pasiskirstymas Klaipėdoje.
The aim of this study is to compare the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Hungary’s economic and social terms in the period from 2004 to 2015, with an emphasized character in the tourism processes. Each of the four countries joined to the European Union (2004). The 2008 economic crisis seriously affected these areas at both national and regional levels. We try to find the answer to what kind of processes took place in the economy and in tourism; and what kind of role has the regional marketing toolbar in each countries’ prosperity; and it is still possible to enhance the affirmation of the tourism potential with the online marketing tools.