The aim of the article is to prove the positive impact of education on work salary. For this purpose, the main task of the article is toestimate the Mincer rate of return by taking several factors into account. A secondary task of the research is to analyze the results of2010 and 2011 and to find explanations for the significant differences between the two years. The results of research and a detailedanalysis of the labour market indicate a positive return from attainment of education at an individual level, and they strengthen thehypothesis about a correlation among higher education attainment, higher employment levels and welfare. So far, the Mincer rate ofreturn has not been widely used in Latvia.
This article aims to compare the change of living standard in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia after joining the European Union. The characteristics of living standard are analyzing before joining the EU and after 2004. It is also compared changes of living standard characteristics after the economic crisis. Indicators of living standard, such as the average monthly gross wages, consumer price index, purchasing power, unemployment rate, at-risk-of-poverty rate and others are calculated and compared. The three Baltic states are not only compared with each other, but are also analyzed in the context of the EU. Thus, it can be stated that among the three Baltic States, Estonia is distinguished by highest living standard. Although before the integration Lithuania was ahead of Latvia, but now Lithuania was lower than Latvia by particular characteristics of living standard.
This article analyses the regional disparities of Baltic countries (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia). The investigation period (2004–2013) based on two very important moments for Baltic countries – accession to EU and the end of the EU funding period 2007–2013. It also analyses the change of socio-economic indicators such as the unemployment rate, the average gross wages and salaries and GDP per capita in regions of Baltic countries. The study aim was to determine regions where the unemployment rate is by 35 % higher than the national average and wages (salaries) are less than 75 % of the national average.
Recent academic researchers have indicated that there are possible inequalities concerning work and pay in different countries, professions and economic sectors. The aim of current research is to analyse recent scientific findings on the wage gap depending on gender and empirical data in Latvia using EU-SILC surveys, Labour Surveys and monthly statistical data on wages and salaries for women and men. The findings indicated that in various economic fields and occupations women were under-represented, and amongst most of these fields the modal net wage interval for women was lower than the modal net wage interval for men. It was also concluded that in January 2018 the average gross income from work of women and men were statistically significantly different, confirming that men on average earned more than women.