The article focuses on a relevant problematic issue: the importance and value of the Middle Ages and their battles for the historical culture and for the consciousness of society of the nationalism era. In order to answer the question – firstly, from the perspective of Lithuanian historiography, historical culture, and the manifestations of the historical memory of the society – we invoke the potential of an interdisciplinary approach (i.e., historiography, literature, and cultural studies). The 19th-20th c. history of the research into and the interpretations of the Lithuanian Medieval battles, including the battle of Durbė, are studied in a wide thematic and problematic context. Taking a historiographical orientation towards the long term (longue durée) structural changes, we make a stop at the history and the position of the Medieval battles in the context of national movements. We also pay attention to the transformations of Lithuanian historiography which occur in the interpretations of the battle of Durbė in the Lithuanian historical culture. The hypothesis of the changes of the images, the importance, and the position of the battle of Durbė battle is formulated on the basis of the materials of historiography, literature studies, and cultural history.