The temporal and spatial changes of land use are important while studying the rural landscapes on both the regional-geographical and environmental scales. In the Baltic Sea region with nine countries (including Russian Federation, represented by Kaliningrad oblast, the utilised agricultural land (UAL) makes about 34 % of total region area on the average. The current research revealed the trends of different shrinking rate of UAL in nine studied countries from 1993 to 2008: it varied within the range between 3 % in Denmark and 43 % in Estonia. Research focus was given to the changes in ratio between arable land and area under meadows and pastures: it increased from 6.5 to 10.9 during 15 years period (1993–2008) on the average, that shows the increase in land use and farming intensity even the UAL area was shrunk.
Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) have played an important role in cushioning the downturn in cross border trade during the current economic and financial crisis. This article discusses the role of ECAs in facilitating cross border trade to emerging markets as well as the economic rationale for the existence of such agencies. It also demonstrates how selected risk mitigation instruments of ECAs, namely: (i) buyer credit guarantee, (ii) supplier credit guarantees and (iii) export loans have been applied in practice. Finally cases are presented that highlight how companies have used the service of ECAs, for example, to obtain better terms, including longer term loans and/or lower interest rates.
The role of cross-border cooperation of Kaliningrad region’s of Russian Federation border municipalities in its development strategies are observed. Significance of cross-border cooperation of small and semi-medium cities for its socio-economic development is analysed. The main spheres of cooperation between small and semi-medium border settlements of Kaliningrad region, Poland and Lithuania have been defined. The theoretical base on cross-border cooperation (Russian and foreign researchers) was analysed, and five geographical methods were used on preparation the article.
This article sets out to examine the public policy evaluation model, which is applied for evaluating public policy in Lithuania. The data was collected from the papers published by local researchers, official documents available at the ministries and agencies web sites and other printed materials. Qualitative data for this paper was taken from the series of individual interviews with public officials and evaluators (conducted 200–2010). The data was supplemented with quantitative data from the survey about the scope and significance of evaluation in Lithuania (conducted in 2010). It was found that monitoring system was weak designed and required significant reinvention. The reinvention of the monitoring system will built base for the future evaluation of the results. It is suggested that that the greatest demand for the effectiveness, efficiency and productivity in the government leads to the highest use of performance management and evaluation as a tool for decision-making.
The article aims to show that conditioned by globalization processes integration tendencies in the world economy stimulate the search of new export expansion directions and development methods. Their evaluation and implementation are important driving forces for national economic growth and sustainable development of regions. Current Lithuanian state’s position in export promotion, as it enters into exchanges with the ever-changing global environment, must be conceptually justified, enabling equal participation in the international trade and the ability to withstand globalization’s challenges. Most importantly, export promotion and development mechanisms and instruments should allow for timely responses towards the increasing liberalization of economic relationships and encourage the introduction of prerequisites for the acceleration of economic growth through export expansion.
From 2008 the education action – Latvian Solar Cup – is organized in University of Latvia. In this event, intended for pupils and students, the basics of one of the types of renewable energy – solar photovoltaic – are taught, and pupils from 5th to 12th classes are being taught, and students – those who teach. Lectures about renewable technologies are organized for pupils, and materials are distributed them for homework – to built up just a solar-powered vehicle. First Solar Cup became with an active participation of Czech colleagues (University of Ostrava) and their experience in organizing similar initiatives. Over the next few years the German colleagues from the University of Kassel (Germany) shared with their experience from German Solar Cup activities.
The article is dealing with problems of emergence of green tourism in Ukraine, analyzing trends of eco-tourism in the world and in Ukraine. The research presented in this paper is the initial step of complex research of green tourism on the theoretic basis of social geography. The green tourism we consider as phenomenon that affects the development of rural areas, and makes a multiplier effect in the socio-economic and cultural spheres of rural areas. The paper is focussing on the regional difference in the development of tourism. The findings of O. Beydyk who created the recreational ranking methods, were taken as a methodological basis for this research. The economic estimation of GDP and the index of recreational and tourist potential of the regions in Ukraine are compared during this research stage.
Cross-border cooperation is one of the advantages of the EU that presented conditions for economic growth of all Member States when the organization was formed. The aim of the work was to look for quantitative indicators and data processing methods that would characterize cross-border interactions, while looking for and marking out high-integration regions. The authors’ previous studies (Paiders, Paiders, 2010) were aimed at conducting measurements of cross-border interactions in the cluster of European states. In this work, the authors use the already-familiar methodology and indicators in order to analyze the cross-border interactions of African states. The layout of highly integrated borders allowed marking out four groups of African states with the greatest economic integration with neighboring states.
In the article results of the comparative analysis of world experience of stimulation of innovative-investment process through the formation of a favorable tax climate are generalized. Development of tax stimulation of innovation activity is considered as a crucial factor in building a new model of economic growth. It is concluded that within the subject principle there are three elements of the stimulation instrument: amortization privileges, preferences concerning the profits tax, indirect measures of tax stimulation. Conclusions on potential use of foreign tax instruments of stimulation of innovation activity in the Russian conditions are presented.