The continuous reduction and aging of population poses a serious threat to social economic development in Latvia. The consequence may be an imbalance of the social budget and the pension system, lack of human resources, reduction of business activity, etc., which has the potential to cause deeper economic and political crisis. Particular importance in this context takes early identification of negative trends and development of adequate strategic decisions.Three hypothetical scenarios of social economic development in Latvia are generated using simulation model based on system dynamics methods. The novelty of research is the design of the model, range of selected factors and their structure, dependency between factors and time horizon. This made possible to calculate dynamics of population and its structure in dependence on GDP and average income.General trends for social economic development in Latvia are shown and several recommendations are offered. The research can be used for dynamic analysis in any specific field related to social economic development and demography.
The tasks of the article are: 1) to survey the EU and the Lithuania documents about R&D priorities and initiatives; 2) to analysis the situation of published applications according to date of filing the application; 3) to determine the main R&D smart specialization directions according to published subclasses of International Patent Classification. To achieve these goals the analysis of scientific literature and survey research was used. The study reviewed 2005–2013 the Lithuanian State patent official Gazette and implemented published patent applications situation analysis.
The goal of this study is to evaluate the importance of the risk factors for agricultural producers in the country and to propose support measures for agricultural production in order to avoid or reduce the negative effects of risk factors. The object of this study is the opinion of Lithuanian agricultural producers about their risks. In order to perform an analysis of the risk factors disclosed in the literature a questionnaire was prepared, as well as grouping model of risk factors. A questionnaire-based survey resulted ranking of the risk factors faced by country agricultural producers.
The subject of this study is leadership styles in educational establishments. Our tasks were as follows: to analyse leadership styles and to carry out an expert study aiming at the evaluation of leadership styles in educational establishments. The methods of investigation consisted in the analysis of scientific literature, systemisation, application of the principles of logical analysis and synthesis, generalisation, induction and deduction.
The theme of this article is regionalisation processes in the region of Latin America. The article tries to find the basic tendencies of regional processes and development in Latin America. It was ascertained that regional processes in Latin America increased after the Cold War when new regional associations were establishing and collaboration between different regions increased. Regional processes do not happen for a long time due to the politics of national protectionism, tension between countries of that region and uneven collaboration in economic sphere. However, increasing political and economic influence of Latin America encourages regional processes by expanding the need of collaboration with this region.
The analysis of literature on liberalisation of the services reveals that public goods, public institutions, privatisation and liberalisation have become the main subject of studies and different debates of the economists, politicians, as well as theoreticians and practicians of public administration during the last century. In the course of the period, there have been changes both in theoretical ideas and practical solutions while providing public services. During the last thirty years, theory of the public goods has involved topics of the analysis on the liberalisation and privatisation processes. Most of the studies related to the liberalisation of the services have been concentrated to financial aspects (expenses and income), while social benefits of the liberalisation, such as public interest, equality, versatility and accessibility of services, transparency, social cohesion and justice, have been left in the background.
Recently, the most intensive processes related to international trade and movement of population are between the countries and regions that have elaborated models of international cooperation. The intensity of movement depends on inter-governmental agreements and the level of developed transport systems. The synchronized and plannified transport systems ensure the movement of trends of population and trade. This mentioned movement leads towards the studies of transport geography and its object of research. Significant input in transport geography researches were accomplished by prof. Jean Paul Rodrigue, who researched different systems in transport geography, logistics and the territorial distribution of transportation of consignments (Hesse, Rodrigue, 2004). J. P. Rodrigue (2009) argued that changes in transport geography depend on social economic changes in society. The studies of international transportation of the consignments require complex approach of researchers and scientists.
There is the one of the biggest problem in the world- not sustainable development of countries, regions. The governments of different countries were trying to solve economical differences between some countries and regions only using economic measures in last century. It should be noted that economic development orientations and concepts cannot satisfy the humanity’s needs and they have only a limited application spectrum in environmental protection studies. The situation supposes the necessity to propose new approaches and to define the essence of economic theory, its potential role and tasks, in solving issues related to critical human existence and civilization survival in the future. Sustainable development is based on three dimensions: economic development, social development, and environmental protection. But still there are big scientific problem – how to change mentality of people through the world? How to find measures that would be understandable for everybody? How to change people thinking to use less? How to explain for managers of organizations, that to be sustainable – to be successful? These and other questions were analyzed in this article. The aim of this paper is to describe benefit of sustainable development in organizations. Object of research – sustainable organizations. The tasks of the article: to analyze the concepts of sustainable development in organizational level; to analyze concept of sustainable organization and to show benefit for organizations to sustainable. Used methods are- the analysis of scientific articles, comparison, and observation.
The paper deals with the situation of entrepreneurship in three rural cross-border regions of Lithuania bordering on Kaliningrad Region and Poland, i.e. with Jurbarkas, Šilutė, and Vilkaviškis districts. The entrepreneurship factors in rural areas have been summarised, the outcomes of the research in the entrepreneurship factors of the rural areas of Lithuanian cross-border regions have been presented, and the factors impeding business development in the region have been named. In the contemporary society, the significance of the impact of entrepreneurship in economic, social, and psychological processes of the society development has been increasing. The direction of the society progress and the trajectory of its development is related to its members’ entrepreneurship abilities and opportunities. Individual’s entrepreneurship contributes to the perception and identification of the new opportunities of activity development, thus increasing the social welfare.