Volume 86, Issue 1 (2021), pp. 28–56
The article presents the concept of the cross-border method that was developed in the framework of the Erasmus+ programme project. The aim of this method is to provide students on PhD/Mg programmes with theoretical knowledge and practical competencies on how to properly develop and conduct research on social and health issues of the elderly in care institutions and in the family environment by using the cross-border method through collaboration and the transfer of innovation. This method was constructed as an attempt to understand the challenges of an ageing society in the modern world, and to be able to assess them in research thereof from both intercultural and comparative perspectives. In order to adopt innovations and to transfer experience in the context of addressing the problems of an ageing society, there is a potential to contribute to the stability of social protection and the accessibility of social services for the elderly. The article presents the concept of the method as one of the results of the project, and as a part of the long-term scientific contributions to revealing the importance of international cooperation and innovation in meeting the challenges of an ageing society. A properly chosen method and well-conducted studies show the essence of the phenomenon of an ageing society and its patterns. The methods determine the quality and reliability of the knowledge of the research subject, and open up opportunities for developing political, learning and care strategies for the social protection of an ageing society in the context of demographic change.
The aim of this article is to analyze the demographic changes that have taken place in Kaunas since the mid. 20th century – the end of the 20th century. The main source of research is field research material, collected in Kaunas during 2018, using the author‘s ethnographic questionnaire. Empirical material was collected using classic field research methods: participatory observation, interview, in-depth, structured and semi-structured interviews. Also the analysis of statistical and historical data was performed. The article is based on oral history theory. The results of the research revealed the participants‘ attitudes and beliefs related to urban changes and demographic trends during the Soviet period in Kaunas.