The article deals with the attitude to Protestantism in the post-soviet Russia. Formation of Protestantism in Russia can be considered in the present paper. Thus, the purposes of this research are to examine formation of Protestantism in Russia, to analyze attitude of Russians to Protestantism and to identify its reasons. The author’s periodization of Protestantism formation in Russia is proposed. This periodization is based on 3 criteria: types of Protestants activities at each stage; the government’s attitude to it; its functions. It is shown that the establishment of the Russian Protestantism version took five basic steps. In modern Russia, Protestantism has its own history, values it gained its traditions, and it has its own distinctive character. Protestant churches are ready to actively participate in solving the pressing issues facing the people of the country. The authors suggest that the most authoritative of them can and should acquire the status of social partners of state institutions and significantly contribute to the spiritual and moral education of young people, to overcoming child homelessness and neglect, to family strengthening, to improvement of moral atmosphere in society and to the formation of high standards of business, economic and work ethic. The positive development of this process and its dynamics are largely dependent on Russian Protestants consolidation and on their willingness and ability to develop and strengthen interfaith relations and cooperation. According to the article, the attitude of most Russians to Protestantism is largely negative, although most of them have friends or acquaintances among the followers of this religion. The reasons for this are stereotypes in the public opinion of Russians: about the church itself (simplification of ceremonies, of the Bible, of the decoration of the church), and about the personal qualities of the congregation (the rejection of community service and charity, lack of citizenship).
This article critically discuss and analize the predominant conception of Vydūnas as a representative of neovedantism. This predominant interpretation of Vydūnas religious identity was popularized by the most productive researcher of Vydūnas Vacys Bagdonavičius. Analysing methodological approach of V. Bagdonavičius and basing on hermeneutical view to fenomena of Vydūnas religious expression, it is indicated that the prime influence to Vydūnas religious identity formation was made by the junction and tension between Germanish liberal protestant theology and local, conservative ,,gathering crowd“ tradition, which impel Vydūnas to universal, confessionally neutral and sincretic interest for religions. Article reveals hypothesis, that Vydūnas creative- religious espression could be perceived as a development of basic liberal protestantic belief principles and its adaptation to concrete historical-cultural also political East Prussia lithuanians situation, in order to avoid confrontation between this two different religious traditions and politically consolidate nation.
Huge impact on the education system based on the universal Catholic pedagogics, and has too much emphasized working activity of the human and underestimated the nature of the personality’s expression, is analyzed in the paper. The mentioned issues are considered regarding the contemporary preparation of seafarers. Aim of the research is a revelation of the universally anthropological value of the education at conditions of protestant pragmatism and technocratism. Social influence of the protestant mentality is discussed. The preparation of seafarers is anthropologically evaluated. Methods such as retrospective analysis of scientific literature, comparison, heuristic analysis, interpretation and systemization were used in the research. Methodological principle of the research is neotomism. Theological tendencies of the protestant technocratism depreciated the personalistic culture that is psychologically compensated emphasizing the modern progress of the technological preparation of seafarers ignoring the broad approach to the valuable potential of the seafarer’s personality self-development. This approach lets create the universal local systems of the seafarers’ higher vocational education, and adequately combine the conditions of the complex human nature development and of the extreme work based on the European culture and authentic Christian heritage of education.
The article explores the musical culture of East Prussia of the 18th c. in different forms of its expression. The epoch of Enlightenment provided a new impetus for the development of the culture in the region. The Protestant Lutheran hymnody was developing, and the tradition of Evangelical surinkimai (prayer hours held in private homes by lay preachers (German: Stundenhalters)) was progressing. Königsberg University was of great significance for the promotion of the regional culture. In the 18th c., the East Prussian school of composition was born, different techniques of instrumental ensemble and solo music making started developing, the house music making traditions were gaining popularity, and big cities had the first musical theatres. It was in that context that the personality of Donelaitis and the character of his cultural activity was maturing and developing.