This study consists of three main themes: (1) An overview is given about the main findings of the economic theories associated withemployment and labour / paid work; reinterpretation of the concept of labour is also provided, divided into pre-industrial, industrialand post-industrial periods, which the author aligns with the periods of the economic thought. The author interprets globalizationas a factor influencing the transition between industrial and post-industrial periods; and she elaborately introduces its economicsocialand labour market impacts. Among the potential alternatives of employment of the future, this thesis investigates the atypicalforms of employment, public employment and social (solidarity) economy. (2) Central-Eastern European countries and regions areanalyzed, as the territorial unit of the research, from labour market and employment aspects. Afterwards, the author evaluates theemployment situation of her closer environment, Northern Hungary. (3) Afterwards, she contributes suggestions to the criteria ofcreating a more efficient regional employment policy. The aim of this research was analysed the regional labour market situation bythe Central-Eastern European countries and regions, in particular by the North Hungarian region and was gave some proposals for apossible, efficient regional employment policy. Therefore through the multiple transformation of work concept, the demand for alternativeemployment forms has increased along with the significant change of the content. The author believes that these alternativefields and the regional employment policy can provide the answer for global labour market problems in the future. At the beginningof her research, she hypothesised that the position of the North Hungarian region is significantly determined by its special economicand social context which can be derived from the end of communism. The author used Hoover-index, tested the Okun’s law inCentral-Eastern European countries and regions, calculated the Markov-chain model and used factor analysis methods.
The development process of any area is anfractuous. It is a multi-stage process. It starts with the area’s attractiveness, attractingresources, which are necessary for its development and ensures their preservation and retention for the area. When using theseresources optimally, efficiently and productively, area’s competitive advantages are achieved and, the area becomes competitive.Competitiveness is driving force and potential of growth of the territory. Growth facilitates quantitative changes of the resources,i.e. accumulation and development of resources, leading to state of development of the territory. The purpose of the process of territorialdevelopment is qualitative distribution and management of these resources aiming at achieving the concrete result – state ofdevelopment of the territory. In this article, the author structures stages of the territory development process in a definite sequencetaking into account earlier developed theoretical findings in this sphere, as well as she completes the layout of these stages with herown scientific view concerning the final aim of the territorial development to be achieved in the process of the development of theterritory. This aim is the territory’s state of development, which can be measured and compared, when considering success of theprocess of territorial development.
This article addresses intersections of migration and economic development as one of the most topical contemporary challenges inthe Baltic states. It uses empirical approach to compare governmental responses to recent economic crisis starting in 2008. Articleanalyses, how these responses were reflected in statistics revealing socio economic dynamics within years of crisis and beyond.Methods of comparing statistical and analysing secondary data are applied. All three states have similar future challenges of agingand declining population and see return migration as one of possible solutions to address this challenge. However, the processesin Estonia provide a better ground for its government to claim that the country makes effort to ensure more stable development.Also, the results demonstrate that Estonia displays more different trends, while Lithuania and Latvia are closer to each other in outmigrationtrends.
As the subprime credit crisis has attracted attention to financial derivative instruments, more frequently arises questions about fairvalue calculations. Over the time, different models had been introduced. All of those models take into account factors affectingprices. Mostly, factors used in calculations on the same type of financial instruments are approximately the same. Therefore questionarises, which factor affects price more and which less, with no matter which model would be used for fair value calculations. One offinancial derivative instrument types is options. Options are agreements, which give to option buyer rights to buy or sell underlyingasset. While the seller or writer of option has obligation to buy or sell underlying asset. This research aims to explore the impact offactors on option fair value calculations and evaluate most important ones from those, which could be chosen by option buyer orseller. To reach the aim of research following tasks are developed: 1) review of fair value calculation models; 2) compare results ofusage of different models and changes in affecting factors; 3) highlight differences between option price affecting factors, modelsused in calculations and results provided. Research includes literature review and analysis of option pricing results. Option pricecalculations are based on historical option prices, using black-Scholes and Binomial option pricing models.
The aim of the paper is to study the influencing factors and to identify the ways of improving the effectiveness of regulation in theLatvian Bank system (LBS). Basing on the systemic comparative and logical analysis data of the efficiency of regulation in differentstages of LBS development article demonstrates that its key factor is the level of business ethics and professionalism of majorshareholders and top management of the banks, but the main directions of improving its efficiency is an increase of the role of contentapproach to control in comparison with the formal approach.
The article reflects on the attitude, understanding and knowledge on sustainable marketing, as well as the essence of sustainable marketing,the strategy of its practical use and the concept of development. As a result of research, definitions of sustainable developmentand sustainable marketing and a model of concept of motivation of its use at a company were developed and the strategy of practicaluse of a sustainable marketing and the motivation of use at Latvian companies was ascertained, confirming the initially advancedhypotheses. In order to fulfil the purpose and objectives, the authors used the following quantitative and qualitative methods ofeconomic research: polls, comparisons, grouping. The study is based on scientific papers published by Latvian and foreign scholars,general and special literature, periodicals. The authors performed an assessment, market research, comparative analysis, arrangedan expert examination and used the computer software MS Excel for the analysis and processing of data. The article is based on theresults of the author’s research in 2013. The authors used examination and monitoring in their research.
The application of Project Management (PM) tools and techniques in public sector is gradually becoming an important issue indeveloping economies, especially in a new development country like Latvia where projects of different size and structures are undertaken.The paper examined the application of the project management practice in public sector in Latvia. Public sector projectmanagement in Latvia become popular in recent years as there is different type of public funding sources available. The paperdescribes the public sector project management practice in Latvia. Study shows that public sector project maturity level is low andshould be improved. Research period covers the time period from January 2013 – March 2013.
For successful economic transition to the new stage of development improvements in business environment, as also the entrepreneurswho are ready to start your own business and to set up new companies. One of the main challenges the EU Member States face isthe need to boost their level of entrepreneurship and to become more competitive in the global market. That was one of the mainobjectives set by the Lisbon European Council, in March 2000, with a view to improving the Union’s performance in terms of employment,economic reform and social cohesion. Entrepreneurship is not only a driving force in the creation of new jobs, but it alsoincreases and enhances competitiveness and growth, personal fulfilment and the achievement of social objectives. The authors payspecific attention to the need to examine factors that affect the business environment development and entrepreneurship in regions ofLatvia, which determinethe complexity of the existing conditions and factors in each region in Latvia.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the mechanisms contributing to increasing of the efficiency of the institutions andinstruments ensuring the innovative development of Russia, increasing of its competitiveness in terms of accession to the WTOand the OECD. The article considers factors, negatively influencing on the innovative development of Russia. In the article wasconducted comparative analysis of expenditure on R&D in the different countries, analysis of modern methods and tools of statesupport of innovative development. A complex of additional measures aimed at enhancing the innovative activity of the businesssector and the measures of state support of innovative development in Russia are proposed.
The aim of the article is to prove the positive impact of education on work salary. For this purpose, the main task of the article is toestimate the Mincer rate of return by taking several factors into account. A secondary task of the research is to analyze the results of2010 and 2011 and to find explanations for the significant differences between the two years. The results of research and a detailedanalysis of the labour market indicate a positive return from attainment of education at an individual level, and they strengthen thehypothesis about a correlation among higher education attainment, higher employment levels and welfare. So far, the Mincer rate ofreturn has not been widely used in Latvia.