In this study, an NPZD model and a trophic network model that contains organism groups on the higher trophic levels were developed and linked using the “bottom-up control” approach. Such a linkage of models provides the possibility to use the advantages of both models; reproducing of the erratic behaviour of nutrients and plankton as realistic as possible, while still taking the more complex organisms in the trophic network, which respond to external forcing in a larger time scale. The models developed in this study were applied to the Curonian Lagoon that is an important estuarine ecosystem for Lithuania. The tests and simulations have proven that the results of the NPZD model were accurate enough for representing the nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics in the Curonian Lagoon as well as spatial differences which are of ecological interest. Linkage with trophic network model demonstrated NPZD model results to be consistent with the Curonian Lagoons ecosystem. The modelling results showed that primary production is relatively high in the Curonian Lagoon and is unlikely to be controlled by the organisms that are on the higher trophic levels of the food web. Analysis of the NPZD model scenarios with different nutrients inputs revealed that phosphorus is the main limiting nutrient for primary production in the Curonian Lagoon. However, different combinations of nitrogen and phosphorus inputs control the relative abundance of different phytoplankton groups. Investigation of reaction of ecosystem to water temperature increase showed that the temperature increase finally leads to decrease of available phytoplankton to upper levels of the food web.
Physical and chemical parameters were measured in a mostly freshwater estuarine lagoon in the SE Baltic. Present paper demonstrates an attempt to trace the sources and analyse the seasonal and spatial patterns of distribution of POC, DIC and DOC in the Curonian lagoon mostly by the isotopic content in different forms of carbon. Samples were collected in 2012-2014 in 9 stations in the Curonian lagoon including riverine and marine input/output stations. Riverine inputs and summarizing outflow to the Baltic sea locations (Nemunas river delta and Klaipeda channel stations were sampled monthly, while POC, DIC and DOC samples in other stations were collected on a seasonal basis. The observed results allow easily differentiate between estuarine and riverine POM samples, while the differences in DOC δ13C content between sampling stations were found to be not statistically reliable. The high biological productivity of the Nemunas river along with the minor contribution of the Baltic Sea inflows to the overall hydrodynamics of the lagoon explain similarity of content between riverine and estuarine material in the spring and autumn. However, the δ13C content of DIC and DOC could serve as indicator of external inputs only in connection with seasonal water residence variations.
The Lithuanian coast of the south eastern part of the Baltic Sea represents a generic type of more or less straight, high-energy (in the Baltic Sea conditions), actively developing coasts that contain a relatively large amount of finer, mobile sediments, are open to predominating wind directions and are exposed to wave activity for a wide range of wave approach directions. The combination of the angular distribution of winds and the geometry of the coast are such that the wave-induced long-shore sediment transport is, in average, to the north over the entire Curonian spit and the mainland coast of Lithuania. Analysis of the field data performed by the G. Žilinskas (2008) from 1976-2007 revealed that the length of accumulative sections has been considerably reduced. Accordingly, the length of the gradually eroding sectors has increased in the end of the 20th century. In this study were analised potential variations in the long-shore sediment transport rate due changes of the wind wave directions.
Sediment transport rate is estimated by the energy flux model, also known as the Coastal Engineering Research Centre (CERC) model. The study area covers the entire coast of Lithuania. Entire coast was divided into 90 grids, about 1 km long beach sectors, at the 3 m depth isobaths. Wave directions calculated every 10 degrees.
Most intensive long-shore sediment transport from south to the north was induced by waves from South. Changing wave approaching direction to the SW, long-shore sediment transport rate become smaller. Waves from WSW induce long shore sediment transport from opposite direction, from north to south. Westerly waves already induce maximum sediment transport to the south. It should be noticed that wave direction further shifting to the North induces sediment transport to the north again.